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APA Citations

The following examples demonstrate how to cite common sources according to the APA 6th edition style. For full details, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition).


The APA-style is used in psychology, education, business, social work, and the social sciences.

Sample Research Paper

A sample APA-style research paper is available on Diana Hacker's Research & Documentation Online website

Formatted APA Citations

The Union Institute & University Library provides access to three tools that format APA citations: Google Scholar and Zotero. Visit our Citation Tools page for information and instructions.

In-Text Citations

Author’s Name Already Used in Sentence

1 Author

2 Authors

3-5 Authors

6+ Authors

Your sentence (Year).

(Last Name, Year)

(Last N. & Last N., Year)

(Last N., Last N., & Last N., Year)

(First Last Name et al., Year)


Bibliography Citations


Template: Author, A. B. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle. Journal, volume(number), xx–xx. doi:0.1111/2222-3333.44.555 (include the doi number if available)

Example: Oricho, D. O. (2010). Understanding benefits of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the work  place mediation. Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution, 2(1), 11–19.

Example: Keenan, K., Hipwell, A., Chung, T., Stepp, S., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., & McTigue, K. (2010).  The Pittsburg Girls Study: Overview and Initial Findings.  Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 39(4), 506-521. doi:10.1080/15374416.2010.486320


Template: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle. City, State: Publisher. doi:0.1111/2222-3333.44.555 (include the doi number if available)

Example: Hyman, M. (2008). The UltraMind solution: Fix your broken brain by healing your body first: The simple way to defeat depression, overcome anxiety, and sharpen your mind. New York, NY: Scribner. doi:10.1037/10082-000

Example: Katz, S. E. (2003). Wild fermentation: The flavor, nutrition, and craft of live-culture foods [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

Example: Stone, C. B., & Dahir, C. A. (2006). The transformed school counselor. Boston: Lahaska Press.

Book Chapter

Template: Chapter Author, A. B. (Year). Chapter title. In Book author, Book title (pp. xx–xx). City, State: Publisher.

Example: Manzini, E. (2007). The scenario of a multi-local society: Creative communities, active networks, and enabling solutions. In J. Chapman & N. Grant (Eds.), Designers, visionaries and other stories: A collection of sustainable design essays (4th ed.) (pp. 76–95). London, United Kingdom: Earthscan.


Template: Author, A. A. (Date). Title of dissertation: Subtitle (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 1111111).

Example: Curran, C. F. (2007). The experience of moving to different dimensions of consciousness (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 3287726).


Template: Author, A. A. (Date). Title of webpage. Retrieved from URL

Example: U. S. Department of Agriculture. (2009). Nutrition Program Facts. Retrieved from http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/WIC-Fact-Sheet.pdf

Example: The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute. (n.d.) King quotes on war and peace. Retrieved from http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/resources/article/king_quotes_on_war_and_peace/